  Books

Bibliography
Teaching Introductory Physics by Swartz and Miner, AIP Press
Life in Moving Fluids, by Vogel, Willard Grand Press
Encyclopedia of Physics, by Lerner and Trigg, VCH Publishers

Granger: Fluid Mechanics, 1995 by Robert Granger

Page 41: description of fluids. Page 69 Viscosity. Ideal fluids have zero viscosity. Measures internal resistance and is a function of cohesion and rate of transfer of molecular momentum - and to some extent, pressure. Page 74 mu + 1/3 * rho V lambda mu / mu0 = (T / T0)^n. Page 88: air flow between plates problem 2.10. 2.14. Page 704: boundary layers.

Halliday: Fundamentals of Physics 3-rd edition by Halliday and Resnick, 1988

Page 376: Bernoulli tells us that if the speed of a fluid particle increases as it travels along a streamline, the pressure of the fluid must decrease, and conversely. Page 377: Smoke gets sucked outside the car window. Paper strip rises. Windows and roofs pop. Venturi Meter. (does it work the other way around?) Page 378: Airplane wing. Page 379 Prairie dogs burrows. Baseballs and golf balls. Page 380 diagram of baseball rotating. Page 383: cone in funnel. Page 390 Levitator problem # 74P.

Page E6-2 Reynolds: R = rho v d / mu: density * vel * diameter / viscosity. Drag = 1/2 rho * A * C v^2. E6-7 separation point deflected by ball spinning. E6-8 drawing of baseball (diferent in a and b and different from page 380.

P #75P on page 390. An 80-cm^2 plate of 500-g mass is hinged along one side. If air is blown over the upper surface only, what speed must the air have to hold the plate horizontal?

F = .5 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 = 4.9 nt force needed to support the plate. P = 4.9 nt / 80 cm^2 * (10000 cm^2/m^2) = 612.5 pa. d = 1.21 kg/m^3 density of air. U^2 = 2 * P/d pa/(kg/m^3) or (m^2/s^2) = 1012.3 m^2/s^2. U = 31.8 m/s. The answer in the book is 31 m/s.

Lerner: Encyclopedia of Physics, Lerner & Trigg 2-nd edition 1991

Page 1338: Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid F = nu A V / d or Friction Force = viscosity * area * velocity / distance. Note: Then, center plate must drag twice as fast to get correct average velocity. kg-m/s^2 = kg/m/s * m^2 * m/s /m

MEM: Meter Equipment Manufacturing Inc. Flow Products Catalog - September 1996

Page 21: Gas Service: SCFM means Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. MEM standard is the weight of one cubic foot of gas at 14.697 psia & 70 degrees F. Thus it is 7.492 10-2 pounds at any conditions and a specific volume only at certain conditions. Thus 1 SCFM is .075 pounds pre minute at any condition and 1 cubic foot per minute at 14.697 psia and 70 degrees F.

1 SCFM = 2.832 * 10-2 m3 / min (page 23)

1 SCFM = 4.74 * 10-4 m3 / sec (/60)

1 SCFM = 5.688 * 10-4 kg / sec (at 1.2 kg / m3)

1 PSIG = 6.895 * 103 pascals (page 23)

Potter: Fluid Mechanics by Potter and Foss, 1975

Page 144: problem 2.5 shows disks for incompressible fluid. Page 153: problem 2.32 shows levitator. Page 249: pictures of coning. Page 265 Cavitation. Page 343: vena cava. Page 360: burr causes vacuum. Page 394: atomizer via Bernoulli.

Shapiro: Shape and Flow, 1961 by Ascher Shapiro

Pages 146 & 150 & 163: photo of cone and turbulence.

Potter: Fluid Mechanics by Potter and Foss, 1975

Page 153: levitator problem (answer page 578). Page 266: picture of cavitation bubbles. Page 337: linear pressure decrease for a pipe, dp/dx = (p1-p0)/ L. Page 338: Moody diagram. Page 343: Nozzle Flow Area = C * A, where C = .62 + .38(A2/A1). Page 474: Compressible Flows. Page 490: stagnation temperature T0 = T1 + V^2/(2C). Page 493: choked flow.

Vogel: Life in Moving Fluids, 2-nd edition, Steven Vogel, 1994

Page 23: Dynamic Viscosity: Interlamellar stickiness or friction between the sheets. The force necessary for the upper plate to achieve a given velocity is the product of that velocity (U), the area of the plate (S) and the dynamic viscosity (mu) divided by the distance (z) between the plates.

F = mu U S / z

Mu has units of kg/m-s (or) nt/(m^2/s) (or) pa-s (or) poise/10

Also called viscosity of molecular viscosity.

Dynamic viscosity of air and water is substantially independent of density.

 Substance Temperature Dynamic Viscosity Density Kinematic Viscosity Centigrade Pa s Kg/m^3 M^2/s Air 0 17.09 * 10-6 1.293 13.22 * 10-6 Air 20 18.08 * 10-6 1.205 15.00 * 10-6 Air 40 19.04 * 10-6 1.128 16.88 * 10-6

Kinematic Density is Dynamic Viscosity divided by density.

Then: consider the force on one plate between two others:

F = 2 * mu U S / (h2) = 4 mu U S / h

Kg-m/s^2 = kg/m-s * m/s * m^2 / m

Page 81: drag = rho * S * U^2. Page 84: Reynolds number = dens * l * U / mu = l * U / nu. Speed, density, diameter, viscosity. Page 87: Forces: Inertial / viscous = pSv^2/(muSV/l) = plU/mu= R. Page 96: drawing of separation. Page 224: Circulation and vorticity & lift & drawing of baseball.

Gamma = 2 pi r U (same units as splay and kv) Magnus effect. F/l = rho U Gamma

Page 290: friction can't reduce the velocity - it can reduce the pressure. Page 294 Resistance to flow = 8 mu l / (pi a^4). Power, P = (dp^2)/R.

-----

Bibloigraphy