Summary
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Summary and Extensions

Summary

In this paper I cited the Bernoulli Principle as the popular explanation for lift, despite its requirements for incompressible flow (constant density), and no flow motivation. I reviewed popular textbook applications of the Bernoulli Principle to lift.

I also proposed an alternative explanation, based on Radial Momentum. I developed a mathematics for this theory to give quantitative answers to questions about lift.

I presented the results from experiments with three different types of apparatus to show how Radial Momentum provides a workable and consistent explanation for lift in these cases.

 

Extensions

Numerous other situations involving lift present opportunities for study, such as balls sticking in funnels, balls suspended in vacuum cleaner exhaust streams, curving balls in baseball, strips of paper rising to meet air streams above them, perfume atomizers, and airplane wings. Each of these situations could bear investigation to determine how the lift effects actually arise.

I developed a model to display the behavior of key variables between the plates of the levitator. A thorough presentation and defense of this model is outside the scope of this work. The model is basically a system of integral equations, arranged according to a method of Euler, who was, incidentally, a contemporary of Bernoulli. This approach rarely appears in standard fluid dynamics textbooks and the formulations and overall model design might seem foreign to classically-trained fluid dynamic practitioners.  I know of no other way, using standard analytics, to obtain a simulation such as appears in this paper and would suggest extending this methodology as a valuable tool with which to explore fluid dynamics situations.